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Richard Skaggs

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Seiple TE, A Coleman, and R Skaggs. 2017. "Municipal Wastewater Sludge as a Sustainable Bioresource in the United States." Journal of Environmental Management 197:673-680.  doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.04.032


  • Voisin N, MCW Kintner-Meyer, R Skaggs, TB Nguyen, D Wu, JA Dirks, YL Xie, and MI Hejazi. 2016. "Vulnerability of the US Western Electric Grid to Hydro-Climatological Conditions: How bad can it get?" Energy 115(Part 1):1-12.  doi:10.1016/


  • Moore BC, AM Coleman, MS Wigmosta, R Skaggs, and E Venteris. 2015. "A High Spatiotemporal Assessment of Consumptive Water Use and Water Scarcity in the Conterminous United States." Water Resources Management 29(14):5185-5200.  doi:10.1007/s11269-015-1112-x


  • Venteris ER, MS Wigmosta, AM Coleman, and R Skaggs. 2014. "Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites." Frontiers in Energy Research 2:Article No. 37.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2014.00037
  • Venteris ER, R McBride, AM Coleman, R Skaggs, and MS Wigmosta. 2014. "Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure ." Environmental Science & Technology 48(6):3559-3566.  doi:10.1021/es4045488
  • Venteris ER, R Skaggs, MS Wigmosta, and AM Coleman. 2014. "A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction." Biomass & Bioenergy 64:276-290.  doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.02.001
  • Venteris ER, R Skaggs, MS Wigmosta, and AM Coleman. 2014. "Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs." Algal Research 5:215-225.  doi:10.1016/j.algal.2014.02.002
  • Coleman AM, J Abodeely, R Skaggs, WAM Moeglein, DT Newby, ER Venteris, and MS Wigmosta. 2014. "An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities." Algal Research 5:79-94.  doi:10.1016/j.algal.2014.05.008
  • Davis R, D Fishman, ED Frank, MC Johnson, SB Jones, C Kinchin, R Skaggs, ER Venteris, and MS Wigmosta. 2014. "Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale." Environmental Science & Technology 48(10):6035-6042.  doi:10.1021/es4055719


  • Venteris ER, R Skaggs, AM Coleman, and MS Wigmosta. 2013. "A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES." Environmental Science & Technology 47(9):4840-4849.  doi:10.1021/es304135b



  • Wigmosta MS, AM Coleman, R Skaggs, MH Huesemann, and LJ Lane. 2011. "National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand." Water Resources Research 47:Article No. W00H04.  doi:10.1029/2010WR009966



  • Shin Y, GE Fryxell, W Um, KE Parker, SV Mattigod, and R Skaggs. 2007. "Sulfur-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon." Advanced Functional Materials 17(15):2897-2901.  doi:10.1002/adfm.200601230


  • Skaggs R, TM Straub, B Wright, CJ Bruckner-Lea, and SD Harvey. 2004. "Development of the Next Generation Microbiological and Chemical Detection Capabilities for Water Supplies." Chapter 18 in Water Supply Systems Security, ed. Larry W. Mays, pp. 18.1-18.21.  McGraw Hill, New York, NY. 


  • Mattigod SV, R Skaggs, and GE Fryxell. 2003. "Removal of Heavy Metals From Contaminated Waters Using Novel Nanoporous Adsorbent Materials." In Industrial Wastes, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, vol. 10, pp. 622-631.  Portland Press, Colchester, United Kingdom. 


  • Vail LW, and R Skaggs. 2002. Adaptive Management Platform for Natural Resources in the Columbia River BasinPNNL-13875, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Skaggs R, LW Vail, and SA Shankle. 2002. "Adaptive Management for Water Supply Planning: Sustaining Mexico City's Water Supply ." Chapter 15 in Urban Water Supply Handbook, ed. Larry W. Mays, pp. 15.3 - 15.24.  McGraw Hill, New York, NY. 


  • Skaggs R, LW Mays, and LW Vail. 2001. "Application of Enhanced Annealing to Ground Water Remediation Design." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(4):867-875. 
  • Skaggs R, LW Mays, and LW Vail. 2001. "Simulated Annealing With Memory and Directional Search for Ground Water Remediation Design." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(4):853-866. 


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