# Jason Hou

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

PO Box 999

Richland, WA 99352

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## Biography

Dr. Z. Jason Hou is a senior scientist and statistician at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and has been well recognized for leading pioneering work in developing and applying advanced machine learning, uncertainty quantification, and extreme events analysis, in the areas of earth, energy, and environmental systems. Dr. Hou's research broadly cuts across areas in stochastic operation and planning of energy systems, extreme events in earth systems, carbon sequestration, oil/gas exploration, and environmental remediation.

Dr. Hou and his team have integrated the entropy concept, geospatial statistics, efficient sampling, and multi-chain MCMC-Bayesian inversion for risk assessment associated with subsurface flow and transport phenomena; developed automated time series forecasting of renewable generation and electricity demand with fully coupled multiresolution analysis, automated ARIMA model training, machine-learning based probabilistic forecasting, and risk quantification; developed a comprehensive system anomaly detection and extreme event analysis approach with geostatistical modeling of heterogeneity and incorporation of temporal non-stationarity.

## Research Interests

- Machine Learning
- Data Mining
- Uncertainty Quantification
- Extreme Events
- Complex Systems (earth, energy, and environment)

## Education and Credentials

- Ph.D., Geo-Statistics, University of California, Berkeley
- M.A., Statistics, University of California, Berkeley
- M.S., Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
- M.S., Atmospheric Sciences, Peking University
- B.S., Geophysics, Peking University

## Affiliations and Professional Service

- Review panel: U.S. Department of Energy; National Science Foundation; U.S. Army ERDP
- Editorial / peer reviewer: Advances in Water Resources; Advances in Mechanical Engineering; Applied Energy; Atmosphere-Ocean; Energies; Entropy; Environmental Earth Sciences; Environmental Modeling and Software; Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology; Hydrology and Earth System Sciences; IEEE PES Letters; IEEE PES Transactions on Smart Grid; International Journal of Geosciences; J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology; J. of Applied Geophysics; J. of Environ. and Eng. Geophysics; J. of Hydrometeorology; J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology; J. of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics; J. of Hydrologic Engineering; J. of Petroleum and Gas Engineering; J. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology; J. of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems; J. of Hydrology; J. of Geophysical Research; Mathematical Geoscience; SPE Journal; Weather, Climate and Society; Water Resources Research; Weather and Forecasting.
- Professional societies: American Statistician Association (ASA), American Mathematical Society (AMS), American Geophysical Union (AGU), American Meteorological Society (AMS), Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), IGERT SUNY
- Member of American Geophysical Union Hydrologic Uncertainty Committee and chaired various conference sessions.

## PNNL Publications

### 2019

- Yan H., N. Sun, M.S. Wigmosta, R. Skaggs, L. Leung, A. Coleman, and Z. Hou. 2019. "Observed Spatiotemporal Changes in the Mechanisms of Extreme Water Available for Runoff in the Western United States."
*Geophysical Research Letters*46, no. 2:767-775. PNNL-SA-138215. doi:10.1029/2018GL080260

### 2018

- Bao J., T. Zhou, M. Huang, Z. Hou, W.A. Perkins, S.F. Harding, and P. Titzler, et al. 2018. "Modulating factors of hydrologic exchanges in a large-scale river reach: Insights from three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations."
*Hydrological Processes*32, no. 23:3446-3463. PNNL-SA-123673. doi:10.1002/hyp.13266 - Bao J., Z. Hou, J. Ray, M. Huang, L.P. Swiler, and H. Ren. 2018. "Soil moisture estimation using tomographic ground penetrating radar in a MCMC-Bayesian framework."
*Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment*32, no. 8:2213-2231. PNNL-SA-116707. doi:10.1007/s00477-018-1571-8 - Berscheid A.P., Y.V. Makarov, Z. Hou, R. Diao, Y. Zhang, N.A. Samaan, and Y. Yuan, et al. 2018. "An Open-Source Tool for Automated Power Grid Stress Level Prediction at Balancing Authorities." In
*IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D), April 16-19, 2018, Denver, CO*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-128564. doi:10.1109/TDC.2018.8440330 - Etingov P.V., F.K. Tuffner, J.D. Follum, X. Li, H. Wang, R. Diao, and Y. Zhang, et al. 2018. "Open-Source Suite for Advanced Synchrophasor Analysis." In
*2018 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exposition*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-128061. doi:10.1109/TDC.2018.8440500 - Etingov P.V., L.E. Miller, Z. Hou, Y.V. Makarov, K. Pennock, P. Beaucage, and C. Loutan, et al. 2018. "Balancing Needs Assessment Using Advanced Probabilistic Forecasts." In
*2018 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS)*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-131887. doi:10.1109/PMAPS.2018.8440392 - Hou Z., J.D. Follum, P.V. Etingov, F.K. Tuffner, D. Kosterev, and G.H. Matthews. 2018. "Machine Learning of Factors Influencing Damping and Frequency of Dominant Inter-area Modes in the WECC Interconnect." In
*2018 IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS)*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-131932. doi:10.1109/PMAPS.2018.8440361 - Qian Y., H. Wan, B. Yang, J. Golaz, B.E. Harrop, Z. Hou, and V.E. Larson, et al. 2018. "Parametric Sensitivity and Uncertainty Quantification in the Version 1 of E3SM Atmosphere Model Based on Short Perturbed Parameter Ensemble Simulations."
*Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres)*123, no. 23:13046-13073. PNNL-SA-138521. doi:10.1029/2018JD028927 - Ren H., Z. Hou, and P.V. Etingov. 2018. "Online Anomaly Detection Using Machine Learning and HPC for Power System Synchrophasor Measurements." In
*2018 IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS)*. PNNL-SA-131920. doi:10.1109/PMAPS.2018.8440495 - Ren H., Z. Hou, H. Wang, D.V. Zarzhitsky, and P.V. Etingov. 2018. "Pattern Mining and Anomaly Detection based on the Power System Synchrophasor Measurements." In
*Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS)*, 2608-2614. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-126905. doi:10.24251/HICSS.2018.330 - Yan H., N. Sun, M.S. Wigmosta, R. Skaggs, Z. Hou, and L. Leung. 2018. "Next-Generation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Hydrologic Design in Snow-Dominated Environments."
*Water Resources Research*54, no. 2:1093-1108. PNNL-SA-126849. doi:10.1002/2017WR021290 - Zhou T., J. Bao, M. Huang, Z. Hou, E.V. Arntzen, X. Song, and S.F. Harding, et al. 2018. "Riverbed Hydrologic Exchange Dynamics in a Large Regulated River Reach."
*Water Resources Research*54, no. 4:2715-2730. PNNL-SA-123666. doi:10.1002/2017WR020508

### 2017

- Chen Y., P.V. Etingov, H. Ren, T.B. Nguyen, and Z. Hou. 2017. "Smart Sampling and HPC-based Probabilistic Look-ahead Contingency Analysis Implementation and its Evaluation with Real-world Data." In
*IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July 16-20, 2017, Chicago, Illinois*, 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-122201. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2017.8274058 - Hou Z., W.C. Nelson, J.C. Stegen, C.J. Murray, E.V. Arntzen, A.R. Crump, and D.W. Kennedy, et al. 2017. "Geochemical and Microbial Community Attributes in Relation to Hyporheic Zone Geological Facies."
*Scientific Reports*7. PNNL-SA-121286. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12275-w - Lu J., K. Sakaguchi, Q. Yang, L. Leung, G. Chen, C. Zhao, and E. Swenson, et al. 2017. "Examining the Hydrological Variations in an Aquaplanet World using Wave Activity Transformation."
*Journal of Climate*30, no. 7:2559-2576. PNNL-SA-123595. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0561.1 - Nguyen B., Z. Hou, D.H. Bacon, G.V. Last, and M.D. White. 2017. "Analysis of a complex faulted CO2 reservoir using a three-dimensional hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach."
*Energy Procedia*114. PNNL-SA-121259. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1479 - Nguyen B.N., Z. Hou, D.H. Bacon, and M.D. White. 2017. "A Multiscale Hydro-Geochemical-Mechanical Approach to Analyze Faulted CO2 Reservoirs."
*Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology*7, no. 1:106-127. PNNL-SA-113763. doi:10.1002/ghg.1616 - Ren H., J. Ray, Z. Hou, M. Huang, J. Bao, and L.P. Swiler. 2017. "Bayesian Inversion of Seismic and Electromagnetic Data for Marine Gas Reservoir Characterization Using Multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling."
*Journal of Applied Geophysics*147. PNNL-SA-121160. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2017.10.004 - Yang B., Y. Qian, L.K. Berg, P. Ma, S. Wharton, V. Bulaevskaya, and H. Yan, et al. 2017. "Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model."
*Boundary-Layer Meteorology*162, no. 1:117-142. PNNL-SA-112272. doi:10.1007/s10546-016-0185-2 - Zhou T., M. Huang, J. Bao, Z. Hou, E.V. Arntzen, R.D. Mackley, and A.R. Crump, et al. 2017. "A New Approach to Quantify Shallow Water Hydrologic Exchanges in a Large Regulated River Reach."
*Water*9, no. 9:703. PNNL-SA-123562. doi:10.3390/w9090703

### 2016

- Chen Y., P.V. Etingov, H. Ren, Z. Hou, M.J. Rice, and Y.V. Makarov. 2016. "A look-ahead probabilistic contingency analysis framework incorporating smart sampling techniques." In
*IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM 2016), July 17-21, 2016, Boston, MA*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-114459. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2016.7741449 - Huang M., J. Ray, Z. Hou, H. Ren, Y. Liu, and L.P. Swiler. 2016. "On the Applicability of Surrogate-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian Inversion to the Community Land Model: Case Studies at Flux Tower Sites."
*Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres)*121, no. 13:7548-7563. PNNL-SA-113356. doi:10.1002/2015JD024339 - Nguyen B.N., Z. Hou, D.H. Bacon, C.J. Murray, and M.D. White. 2016. "Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals."
*International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control*46. PNNL-SA-109235. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.01.004 - Nguyen B.N., Z. Hou, G.V. Last, and D.H. Bacon. 2016. "Three-dimensional Analysis of a Faulted CO2 Reservoir Using an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka Approach to Rock Elastic Properties and Fault Permeability."
*Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering*8, no. 6:828-845. PNNL-SA-117116. doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2016.06.007 - Nguyen B.N., Z. Hou, M.L. Stewart, C.J. Murray, and A. Bonneville. 2016. "Thermal Impact of CO2 Injection on Geomechanical Response at the FutureGEN 2.0 Site: A Three-dimensional Thermo-geomechanical Approach."
*International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control*54, no. Part 1:29-49. PNWD-SA-10505. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.08.026 - Qian Y., C.S. Jackson, F. Giorgi, B. Booth, Q. Duan, C. Forest, and D. Higdon, et al. 2016. "Uncertainty Quantification in Climate Modeling and Projection."
*Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society*97, no. 5:821-824. PNNL-SA-115173. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00297.1 - Ren H., Z. Hou, M. Huang, J. Bao, Y. Sun, T.K. Tesfa, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins."
*Journal of Hydrology*536. PNNL-SA-105598. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.02.042 - Sun Y., Z. Hou, D. Meng, N.A. Samaan, Y.V. Makarov, and Z. Huang. 2016. "Quantifying and Reducing Uncertainty in Correlated Multi-Area Short-Term Load Forecasting." In
*IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM 2016), July 17-21, 2016, Boston, MA*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-114275. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2016.7741272

### 2015

- Bao J., Z. Hou, M. Huang, and Y. Liu. 2015. "On Approaches to Analyze the Sensitivity of Simulated Hydrologic Fluxes to Model Parameters in the Community Land Model."
*Water*7, no. 12:6810-6826. PNNL-SA-115624. doi:10.3390/w7126662 - Bao J., Z. Hou, Y. Fang, H. Ren, and G. Lin. 2015. "Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO2 sequestration."
*Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology*5, no. 3:254-267. PNNL-SA-101583. doi:10.1002/ghg.1456 - Hou Z., C.J. Murray, and Y. Bott. 2015.
*Geostatistical Realizations of WMA-C Lithofacies*. PNNL-24698. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. - Makarov Y.V., R. Diao, P.V. Etingov, Z. Hou, Z. Huang, D. Meng, and L.E. Miller, et al. 2015.
*Stochastic Operations and Planning*. PNNL-23680. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. - Qian Y., H. Yan, Z. Hou, G. Johannesson, S.A. Klein, D. Lucas, and R. Neale, et al. 2015. "Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5."
*Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems*7, no. 2:382-411. PNNL-SA-103688. doi:10.1002/2014MS000354 - Ray J., Z. Hou, M. Huang, K. Sargsyan, and L.P. Swiler. 2015. "Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates."
*SIAM/ASA Journal on Uncertainty Quantification*3, no. 1:199-233. PNNL-SA-101091. doi:10.1137/140957998

### 2014

- Bonneville A., B.N. Nguyen, M.L. Stewart, Z. Hou, C.J. Murray, and T.J. Gilmore. 2014. "Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site."
*Energy Procedia*63. PNWD-SA-10393. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.358 - Etingov P.V., Y.V. Makarov, D. Wu, Z. Hou, Y. Sun, S. Maslennikov, and X. Luo, et al. 2014. "Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment." In
*2014 IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition, April 14-17, 2014, Chicago, Illinois*, 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-97885. doi:10.1109/TDC.2014.6863202 - Fang Z., Z. Hou, G. Lin, D.W. Engel, Y. Fang, and P.W. Eslinger. 2014. "Exploring the effects of data quality, data worth, and redundancy of CO2 gas pressure and saturation data on reservoir characterization through PEST Inversion."
*Environmental Earth Sciences*71, no. 7:3025-3037. PNNL-SA-88296. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2680-9 - Hou Z., D.H. Bacon, D.W. Engel, G. Lin, Y. Fang, H. Ren, and Z. Fang. 2014. "Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers."
*International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control*27. PNNL-SA-94280. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.05.004 - Hou Z., P.V. Etingov, Y.V. Makarov, and N.A. Samaan. 2014. "Uncertainty Reduction in Power Generation Forecast Using Coupled Wavelet-ARIMA." In
*IEEE PES General Meeting, Conference & Exposition, July 27-31, 2014, National Harbor, MD*. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-99910. - Lu J., L.R. Leung, Q. Yang, G. Chen, W.D. Collins, F. Li, and Z. Hou, et al. 2014. "The Robust Dynamical Contribution to Precipitation Extremes in Idealized Warming Simulations across Model Resolutions."
*Geophysical Research Letters*41, no. 8:2971-2978. PNNL-SA-100968. doi:10.1002/2014GL059532 - Makarov Y.V., B. Vyakaranam, D. Wu, Z. Hou, S.T. Elbert, and Z. Huang. 2014. "On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary." In
*IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, April 14-17, 2014, Chicago, Illinois*, 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-97919. doi:10.1109/TDC.2014.6863289 - Makarov Y.V., B. Vyakaranam, Z. Hou, D. Wu, D. Meng, S. Wang, and S.T. Elbert, et al. 2014.
*Non-iterative Voltage Stability*. PNNL-23736. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

### 2013

- Bao J., Z. Hou, Y. Fang, H. Ren, and G. Lin. 2013. "Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration."
*Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology*3, no. 5:338-358. PNNL-SA-94881. - Bao J., Z. Hou, Y. Fang, H. Ren, and G. Lin. 2013. "Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration."
*Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology*3, no. 5:338-358. PNNL-SA-95799. doi:10.1002/ghg.1362 - Etingov P.V., Y.V. Makarov, D. Wu, Z. Hou, Y. Sun, S. Maslennikov, and X. Luo, et al. 2013.
*Analysis of ISO NE Balancing Requirements: Uncertainty-based Secure Ranges for ISO New England Dynamic Inerchange Adjustments*. PNNL-22222. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. - Hou Z., D.W. Engel, G. Lin, Y. Fang, and Z. Fang. 2013. "An Uncertainty Quantification Framework for Studying the Effect of Spatial Heterogeneity in Reservoir Permeability on CO2 Sequestration."
*Mathematical Geosciences*45, no. 7:799-817. PNNL-SA-85209. doi:10.1007/s11004-013-9459-0 - Hou Z., M. Huang, D.H. Bacon, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Parameter Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Earth System Models through Exploratory Data Analyses and Calibration." In
*MODFLOW and More 2013: Translating Science into Practice, June 2-5, 2013, Golden, Colorado*, edited by R Maxwell, et al, 159-163. Golden, Colorado:Integrated Ground Water Modeling Center (IGWMC), Colorado School of Mines. PNNL-SA-95103. - Hou Z., N.C. Terry, and S.S. Hubbard. 2013.
*Entropy-Bayesian Inversion of Time-Lapse Tomographic GPR data for Monitoring Dielectric Permittivity and Soil Moisture Variations*. PNNL-22242. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. - Hou Z., Y.V. Makarov, N.A. Samaan, and P.V. Etingov. 2013. "Standardized Software for Wind Load Forecast Error Analyses and Predictions Based on Wavelet-ARIMA Models - Applications at Multiple Geographically Distributed Wind Farms." In
*Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), January 7-10, 2013, Wailea, Hawaii*, edited by RH Sprague, Jr., 5005-5011. Los Alamitos, California:IEEE Computer Society. PNNL-SA-88799. - Huang M., Z. Hou, L.R. Leung, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, Z. Fang, and Y. Sun. 2013. "Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model - Evidence from MOPEX Basins."
*Journal of Hydrometeorology*14. PNNL-SA-90792. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-0138.1 - Mukhopadhyay S., Z. Hou, L.J. Gosink, D.H. Bacon, C.A. Doughty, J.J. Li, and L. Wei, et al. 2013. "Model Comparison and Uncertainty Quantification for Geologic Carbon Storage: The Sim-SEQ Initiative."
*Energy Procedia*37. PNNL-SA-91251. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.284 - Scheibe T.D., Z. Hou, B.J. Palmer, and A.M. Tartakovsky. 2013. "Pore-Scale Simulation of Intragranular Diffusion: Effects of Incomplete Mixing on Macroscopic Manifestations."
*Water Resources Research*49, no. 7:4277-4294. PNNL-SA-91962. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20333 - Sun Y., Z. Hou, M. Huang, F. Tian, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Inverse Modeling of Hydrologic Parameters Using Surface Flux and Runoff Observations in the Community Land Model."
*Hydrology and Earth System Sciences*17. PNNL-SA-94605. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4995-2013 - White S.K., L.J. Gosink, C. Sivaramakrishnan, G.D. Black, S. Purohit, D.H. Bacon, and Z. Hou, et al. 2013. "Implementations of a Flexible Framework for Managing Geologic Sequestration Modeling Projects."
*Energy Procedia*37. PNNL-SA-91339. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.296 - Zhao C., X. Liu, Y. Qian, J. Yoon, Z. Hou, G. Lin, and S.A. McFarlane, et al. 2013. "A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5."
*Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics*13. PNNL-SA-94914. doi:10.5194/acp-13-10969-2013

### 2012

- Hou Z., M. Huang, L.R. Leung, G. Lin, D.M. Ricciuto, and D.M. Ricciuto. 2012. "Sensitivity of Surface Flux Simulations to Hydrologic Parameters Based on an
Uncertainty Quantification Framework Applied to the Community Land Model."
*Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres)*117. PNNL-SA-85130. doi:10.1029/2012JD017521 - Hou Z., M.L. Rockhold, and C.J. Murray. 2012. "Evaluating the impact of caprock and reservoir properties on potential risk of CO2 leakage after injection."
*Environmental Earth Sciences*66, no. 8:2403-2415. PNNL-SA-78848. doi:10.1007/s12665-011-1465-2